Cardiovascular THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM During Work out Physical Education Essay

Cardiovascular Respiratory System During Workout Physical Education Essay

A good understanding of anatomy and physiology is the basis of all medicine. Without focusing on how the body works, how it is manufactured up and how it could go wrong, we cannot even begin to design effective remedies and interventions, including procedure or new pharmaceutical medicines.

The body has many different systems which help to maintain the body’s normal function. Three of these functions are; the heart, the respiratory system and the musculoskeletal system. In this assignment I am searching at how these three devices operate both at resting and during training.

Cardiovascular System

Wilmore, J.H; Costill, D.L (2004) says that the heart consists of; the heart, which works as a pump, arteries acting as something of channels looked after consists of bloodstream which acts as a liquid medium.

The cardiovascular system has three main functions:

Transports oxygen and nutrition to the body’s cells and transports carbon dioxide and waste material from your body’s cells.

Protects the body from infection and loss of blood.

Helps to modify pH balance of your body, body temperature and the total amount of fluid.

(Plowman, A. S; Smith, D.L; 2010).

Below is normally a diagram which ultimately shows the circulation of the cardiovascular system.

(Image from…/chf_circulatory_system.jpg)

As the diagram above reveals the heart pumps oxidized blood to the body so the nutrients could be distributed to the cells and take away the waste which is after that returned to the heart and soul and then in to the lungs to end up being oxidized again to return to your body.

Response to Exercise

Exercise uses up a whole lot of energy, which the cells are based on oxidizing glucose. Both glucose and oxygen have to be delivered by the blood. This implies that the heart must function harder to pump extra blood through your body. This means it has to beat faster so that you can achieve an increased throughput. The cardiovascular system responds to exercise by increasing the activity level. The adrenal gland increases the creation of the hormones adrenaline and nor adrenaline. These include immediate effects on the heart and soul. These hormones cause a rise in the heart rate and the pressure with that your heart contracts each beat. This increases the total amount of bloodstream that is circulated within the body every minute. That upsurge in blood circulation must meet up with the increased demand for nutrients and oxygen that the muscle groups and other tissues.

There are several types of exercise plus they all affect the cardiovascular system similarly, an example of a few of these are; short term light to sub maximal aerobic, long term moderate to heavy sub maximal aerobic, incremental aerobic, static work out and resistance exercise. For the purpose of this essay I am seeking at and comparing; short-term to sub maximal aerobic exercise and major sub maximal aerobic exercise and how they have an effect on the cardiovascular system.


This image reveals the graphs of the adjustments in the heart during light exercise (left) and moderate to heavy exercise (ideal).

(Impression from sample case study Plowman & Smith, 2010, (Picture from Plowman & Smith, 2010

page 357. Figure 12.1) page 360. Figure 12.4)

The two images above contain graphs which present the changes in certain elements of the heart; Q, SV, BP, TPR, HR and RPP. As the graphs demonstrate there is an upsurge in Q, SV, SBP, MAP, HR and RPP, that is due to the upsurge in heart activity. These alterations occur together with the type of exercise, the more extreme the exercise, the extra these factors increase.

There are some variations in these graphs, these include; a dip in SBP and SV in the moderate to heavy exercise. The dip in the SV after around 40 minutes is caused by ‘thermoregulatory stress, which results in vasodilation, plasma damage and redirection in bloodstream to cutaneous vessels to dissipate high temperature.’ (Plowman et al 2010:360) These reactions cause a reduction in venous return which then in turn influences the SV.

The dip in SBP is usually caused by a ‘continued vasodilation and a resultant decrease of level of resistance’ (Ekelund and Holmgren, 1967). During exercise the blood vessels continue to vasodilate as a way to help the blood circulation to and from the heart and soul.

During exercise there can be an increase in TPR. Simply because there alum molar mass exists a vasodilation of the blood vessels to increase the blood flow to help improve the blood circulation. Another reason as to why there is a decrease is to prevent a dramatic boost of MAP.

Plowman et al (2010) specifies that the DBP in these graphs will not change due to an intra-arterially measured BP. Also as a result of small increase in SBP and no transformation in the DBP this triggers the MAP to only increase slightly.


Image demonstrating the distribution of blood vessels to different parts of the body during short-term, light to moderate work out.

(Impression from Plowman & Smith, 2010, page)


Image exhibiting the distribution of blood vessels during long term, average to heavy exercise.

(Picture from Plowman & Smith 2010)

As the two photos present above the distribution of bloodstream during the two different types of exercise, it shows that as the intensity of the exercise escalates the amount of bloodstream to the musculoskeletal program and the skin increases. With this boost of blood to the musculoskeletal system and your skin means that other areas of the body have less blood available to them.

The increase in blood circulation to the musculoskeletal program and the skin is to be able to help cope with the demand from these systems for more oxygen (strength) to help them perform the exercise, because they are the systems used during exercise.

Measuring & Assessing the Cardiovascular System

Respiratory System

The respiratory system is some organs designed to facilitate the exchange of gases, generally oxygen and carbon dioxide, between red blood cells in the circulatory program and the body’s cells. The cells within the body require a constant supply of oxygen (O2) and the capability to ventilate skin tightening and (CO2) made by the cells from them (Wesson, K Thompson, G., Wiggins-James, N. & Hartigan, S. 2005).

The respiratory system is important because body requires energy to function throughout the day and during exercise, nearly all this energy is supplied by the the respiratory system via oxygen. This is done by the the respiratory system via respiration. Below is usually a diagram of the respiratory system.


(Image from

There are four primary elements of respiration which happen to be defined by Plowman et al (2010) as:

Pulmonary Ventilation – procedure where air is moved in and from the lungs via the nose and mouth.

External Respiration – exchange of gases between blood vessels and lungs.

Internal Respiration – exchange of gases between blood vessels and the tissues at cellular level.

Cellular Respiration – the cells employing the oxygen to be able to produce energy.

Respiratory Systems Response to Exercise

During exercise muscles have a massive dependence on energy (oxygen) and the removal of waste products such as carbon dioxide is met by the respiratory system (Wilmore et al 2004). This means that the breathing rate and breathing depth raises although the inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve system decreases. The increases slowly but surely start to happen right before exercising. This is because the ‘anticipation go up’ releases hormones like adrenaline this then simply stimulates the respiratory system. It then includes a heavy rise during the exercise which is caused by the nervous system. Once exercising just before the maximum for awhile the ventalisation starts to decelerate to a steady rate. Although at the maximum training the ventalisation will continue to increase until the work out has finally stopped.

Musculoskeletal System

The musculoskeletal system is an organ system that enables people the ability to move using the muscular and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal program provides form, support, stability, and movement to your body. It is produced up of two devices; skeletal and muscle. Below is an image which shows these two systems, from an anterior prospect, the muscular system is on the still left and the skeletal program is on the right.

(Image from

Skeletal System

The skeletal system provides a kind of framework for the muscular system and organs of your body and is made up of bones and cartilage. A wholesome skeletal system is important to prevent any accidental injuries from happening whether it’s sports related or simply general, injuries to this system make a difference the muscular skeletal program and also organs.

The skeletal system includes a number of functions, included in these are:

Protection – The skeleton defends vital organs in your body. E.g.:

The Ribs, Spine and Sternum shield the lungs and heart.

The skull protects the brain, eyes, the middle and inner ears.

The scapula and clavicle secure the shoulder.

The tarsals and carpals shield the wrist and ankle.

Movement – The muscle tissues are mounted on the skeleton by tendons and without the skeleton to give leverage, the movements of the body will be very restricted.

Shape & Protection – The body’s shape comes from the skeleton as it supports your body and maintains its shape.

Blood Cell Development – The generation of bloodstream cells is were only available in the skeleton. The blood cells are produced in the red bone marrow of the bones.

Storage – The bone matrix shops calcium and the bone marrow can retail outlet iron in ferritin.

Osseous tissue is continually undergoing change since it is a living tissue. Plowman et al (2010) states that

The human skeleton could be split into two major subdivisions; the appendicular skeleton and the axial skeleton.

Appendicular Skeleton

The appendicular skeleton joins with the axial skeleton at the shoulders and hips. Forming a loose attachment with the sternum may be the pectoral girdle, or shoulder. The appendicular skeleton consists of 126 bones and will make the body movement conceivable. The appendicular system shields the organs of digestion, reproduction and excretion. The bones in the appendicular system are either; very long or brief bones. These bones consist of those in the hands, legs, legs and pelvic girdle.

Axial Skeleton

The axial skeleton is the central framework for your body and involves 80 bones. It features five main factors: Vertebral Column, Cranium and facial bones, Thorax, Auditory Ossicles, Ribs. The bones in the axial program are either flat or irregular formed bones and these bones defend the body’s vital organs, i.e. center and lungs.

Skeletal Muscle System

There are different types of muscles which perform different tasks within the body. These kind of muscle are:

Smooth Muscle – this sort of muscle is situated in the digestive system and blood vessels, this type of muscle is involuntary.

Cardiac Muscle – this sort of muscle is found in the heart and is also controlled involuntarily.

Skeletal Muscle – this kind of muscle is available on the muscle tissues that are mounted on the skeleton to trigger movement of your body. These muscle groups are voluntary.

Below can be an image which shows these types of muscle groups and what their individual fibres look like.

(Image from

The skeletal muscles in your body are responsible for all the activities which occur. These movements arise by the skeletal muscle tissue contracting using strength from the ATP program, although for muscles to perform effectively the other systems in the body like the respiratory, cardiovascular and endocrine must be working effectively.

There are ‘unique qualities of muscle tissue’ [which are] ‘specifically suited to its key function: converting an electrical signal right into a mechanical event (contraction of lean muscle fibres).’ (Plowman et al 2010:513).

These features, which are also referred to by Plowman et al (2010), are:





Skeletal Lean muscle during Exercise